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Paigham-i-Goya: An Expression of Love

Ghazal Fifty-Two, Paigham-i-Goya: An Expression of Love

Monday
,
21
March
2022

Paigham-i-Goya: An Expression of Love

Ghazal Fifty-Two, Paigham-i-Goya: An Expression of Love

Monday
,
21
March
2022
Bhai Nand Lal
Persian
Ghazal
Sikhism
Guru Gobind Singh
⟵ Back to articles

Paigham-i-Goya: An Expression of Love

Ghazal Fifty-Two, Paigham-i-Goya: An Expression of Love

Monday
,
21
March
2022
A new translation and brief essay on the fifty-second ghazal from Bhai Nand Lal’s Divan-i-Goya.‍

Translation

Such is our deep connection with You,
That only with Your arrival, there is exuberance in the world.

In Your pathway, I have spread out,
My eyes and my heart—the only worthy possessions I could offer.

Have some compassion for the Divine’s faqīrs! 
So that you may find bliss in this world.

Direct your heart towards the Divine at all times,
So you can cross the bridge of Sirāṭ with ease.

No one is at ease under the ever-turning sky,
So Goya, just move through this worn perpetual caravanserai.

Transcription

Ai kamāl-i tō kamāl ast ō kamāl ast ō kamāl
Ai jamāl-i tō jamāl ast ō jamāl ast ō jamāl

Ai keh nazdīkī tō az shah-rag ō ālam hairān
Yār-i mā īn cheh khayāl ast ō khayāl ast ō khayāl  

Man nadānam keh kudāmam keh kudāmam keh kudām
Bandeh-yi ūyam ō ū hāfiz-i man dar hameh hāl

Dil-i man fārigh ō dar kūyi tō parvāz kunad
Gar ze rāh-i karam-i khīsh bebakhshī par ō bāl  

Sāhib-i hāl beh juz harf-i khudā dam nazanad
Ghair-i zikrash hameh āvāz buvad qīl ō maqāl

Murshid-i kāmil-i mā bandagī-at farmāyad
Ai zahī fāl-i mubārak keh kunad sāhib-i hāl

Bī tō yek dam ō nafas hast marā hamchū sāl
Īn vabāl ast ō vabāl ast ō vabāl ast ō vabāl

Har keh gūyad tō cheh bāshī ō cheh gūyad juz tō
Gasht hairān hameh ‘ālam hameh dar ‘ain-i jamāl

Gurmukhi

ਐ ਕਮਾਲਿ ਤੋ ਕਮਾਲਸਤੋ ਕਮਾਲਸਤੋ ਕਮਾਲ ।
ਐ ਜਮਾਲਿ ਤੋ ਜਮਾਲਸਤੋ ਜਮਾਲਸਤੋ ਜਮਾਲ ॥

ਐ ਕਿ ਨਜ਼ਦੀਕੀ ਤੋ ਅਜ਼ ਸ਼ਾਹ ਰਗ ਵ ਆਲਮ ਹੈਰਾਂਅ ।
ਯਾਰਿ ਮਾ ਈਂ ਚਿ ਖ਼ਿਆਲਸਤੋ ਖ਼ਿਆਲਸਤੋ ਖ਼ਿਆਲ ॥

ਮਨ ਨਦਾਨਮ ਕਿ ਕੁਦਾਮਮ ਕਿ ਕੁਦਾਮ ।
ਬੰਦਾ-ਇ ਓਏਮ ਵ ਓ ਹਾਫ਼ਜ਼ਿ ਮਨ ਦਰ ਹਮਾ ਹਾਲ ॥

ਦਿਲਿ ਮਨ ਫ਼ਾਰਗ਼ ਵ ਦਰ ਕੂਏ ਤੋ ਪਰਵਾਜ਼ ਕੁਨੱਦ ।
ਗਰ ਜ਼ਿ ਰਾਹਿ ਕਰਮਿ ਖ਼ੇਸ਼ ਬਬਖ਼ਸ਼ੀ ਪਰੋ ਬਾਲ ॥

ਸਾਹਿਬਿ ਹਾਲ ਬਜੁਜ਼ ਹਰਫ਼ਿ ਖ਼ੁਦਾ ਦਮ ਨਜ਼ਨੱਦ ।
ਗ਼ੈਰਿ ਜ਼ਿਕਰਸ਼ ਹਮਾ ਆਵਾਜ਼ ਬਵੱਦ ਮਕਾਲ ॥

ਮੁਰਸ਼ਦਿ ਕਾਮਲਿ ਮਾ ਬੰਦਗੀਅਤ ਫ਼ਰਮਾਇਦ ।
ਐ ਜ਼ਹੇ ਫ਼ਾਲਿ ਮੁਬਾਰਕ ਕਿ ਕੁਨੱਦ ਸਾਹਿਬਿ ਹਾਲ ॥

ਬੇ ਤੋ ਯਰ ਦਮੋ ਨਫ਼ਸ ਹਸਤ ਮਰਾ ਹਮ ਚੂ ਸਾਲ ।
ਈਂ ਵਬਾਲ ਅਸਤੋ ਵਬਾਲ ਅਸਤੋ ਵਬਾਲ ਅਸਤੋ ਵਬਾਲ ॥

ਹਰ ਕਿ ਗੋਇਦ ਤੂ ਚਿ ਬਾਸ਼ੀ ਵ ਚਿ ਗੋਇਦ ਜੁਜ਼ਿ ਤੋ ।
ਗਸ਼ਤ ਹੈਰਾਂਅ ਹਮਾ ਆਲਮ ਹਮਾ ਦਰ ਐਨਿ ਜਮਾਲ ॥

Persian

ای کمالِ تو کمال است و کمال است و کمال
ای جمالِ تو جمال است و جمال است و جمال

ای که نزدیکی تو از شه رگ و عالم حیران
یارِ ما این چه خیال است و خیال است و خیال

من ندانم که کدامم که کدامم که کدام
بندهٔ اویم و او حافظِ من در همه حال

دلِ من فارغ و در کوی تو پرواز کند
گر زِ‌ راهِ‌ کرمِ خویش  ببخشی پر و بال

صاحبِ حال به جز حرفِ خدا دم نزند
غیرِ ذکرش همه آواز  بود قیل و مقال

مرشدِ کاملِ ما بندگی ات فرماید
ای زهی فالِ مبارک که کند صاحبِ حال

بی تو یک دم و نفس هست مرا همچو سال
این وبال است و وبال است و وبال است و وبال

هر که گوید تو چه باشی و چه گوید جز تو
گشت حیران همه عالم همه در عین جمال

Commentary

One of the most striking aspects of this ghazal is the repetitive structure of many of the lines, in which Bhai Nand Lal repeats the same word or phrase three times to achieve various effects. In the opening couplet, Bhai Nand Lal emphasizes the Divine’s perfection–which is perfect–and exquisite beauty. In the second couplet, he reflects on the irony of longing for a Divine that is always within one’s self.

The repeated rhyme in this ghazal is the “āl” sound rather than a particular phrase or word. The repeated sound appears at the end of each couplet. Due to the repetitive structure of several of the lines, it is also repeated internally in the lines that adopt the triple repetition structure. As readers will note, this structure lends itself to a rhythmic flow that is conveyed in the Persian recording of the ghazal. We have tried to preserve this rhythm in the English translation as much as possible, mainly by maintaining the repetition rather than using synonyms of words or phrases that would convey the multitude of meanings in the original Persian.

In this ghazal, Bhai Nand Lal offers reflections on his awe of the Divine’s beauty and the torment accompanying one’s longing for a connection to the Divine. Several striking images are worth pointing out in particular. In the second couplet, Bhai Nand Lal reflects on the paradox of the Divine’s proximity (“closer than the jugular vein”) and the difficulty of recognizing that intimacy. In the fourth couplet, Bhai Nand Lal contemplates how one might be able to become a lover of the Divine. Bhai Nand Lal expresses that his heart seeks freedom and to be on the Beloved’s path, but to become a lover of the Divine, the Beloved themselves must offer their grace–the feathers and wings that will allow the body to escape the cage of the world.

Revised:

This Content has been made available for educational purposes only. SikhRI does not make any representation concerning the completeness of the Content. This Content is not intended to substitute research or a deeper understanding of the topic. SikhRI encourages readers to read multiple authors to gain a complete understanding of the topic.

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Written By

Persian Literature Scholar

Fatima Fayyaz is a scholar of Persian literature who studies Central Asian hagiographical Persian literature, contemporary Afghan Persian poetry and prose, Persian epics, and South Asian mystic literature. 

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Associate Professor of Art History, Lahore University of Management Sciences

Nadhra Shahbaz Khan is Associate Professor of art history at the Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. A specialist in the history of art and architecture of the Punjab from the sixteenth to the early twentieth century, her research covers the visual and material culture of this region during the Mughal, Sikh, and colonial periods.

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Inni Kaur is Creative Director at the Sikh Research Institute (SikhRI). She has served SikhRI in several capacities since 2010, including Chair of the Board, and most recently as CEO. 

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Damanpreet Singh is a writer and graduate student who studies race, religion, empire, and the history of capitalism in the nineteenth century.

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